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strategic planning models in higher education

The better ones convey particular actions with respect to target audiences, as well as articulate outcomes. Heres what we know about strategic planning in education including a brief history, what works now and where its heading in the future. But the more substantive the strategy meal, the better, yes? But what is clear across many competing definitions is that strategy: 1) is the link between mission and the realities of the external, competitive marketplace, 2) is about choices associated with organizational direction and 3) differs from operations. Failure in strategic planning can be disastrous. For example, the opposite of “performing high-impact research”? At the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Education, the suite of executive programs is a key strategy. For example, the University of Vermont’s College of Education and Social Services brought together faculty members, administrators and staff members to articulate its strategy. Identify (or re-identify) the goal of your organization, and make sure the mission statementis consistent with this. Founding Director Alan Lightman is pictured on the center right. Strategy Map. As we have said here, strategy is not planning. By framing different types of conversations as part of strategic planning efforts, our hope is that we can generate different, and more beneficial, outcomes from those processes. 3. The problem with many college and university strategic plans is that they do not articulate choices; they are internally, not externally focused, and are muddied by operations. Yet unlike operational priorities, strategy is not time bound. Have questions? Harrisburg University of Science and Technology, Indiana University of Pennsylvania-Main Campus, Indiana University-Purdue University-Fort Wayne, Indiana University-Purdue University-Indianapolis, Instructional technology / distance education, Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College, Marketing / public relations / government relations. While each opposite may occur in practice, rarely are they stated as institutional goals. And once answering those, developing a series of operational plans to deliver on strategy, such as linking budgets with priorities for the next two years? Dr. Hinton's guide shortens the learning curve and unites college leadership with its intuitive, step-by-step approach. The Strategic Planning in Higher Education(SPHE) approach provides a seven-step blueprint for establishing planning priorities, guiding the process, and bringing the plan’s goals to fruition. It is the game plan that contains answers to key questions, such as in what arenas will you engage (undergraduate, graduate; health care, humanities; liberal arts, professional; local, national, global; adult, traditional age, etc.) Furthermore, we in higher education seem quite enamored with five-year plans. Strategy is set and advanced by a collaborative effort. Strategy is the pathway to deliver on that mission. As noted in an Inside Higher Ed article, some of the commonalities of successful strategic planning models for higher education include having an inspirational presidential vision with input from the faculty and a stamp of approval by the board. ), Furthermore, we in higher education seem quite enamored with five-year plans. The strategy that is pursued comes through collective and intentional efforts as well as through emergent activities by colleges, departments and even individual faculty members. Strategy is a primary example of that “inescapable interdependence” the AAUP’s 1966 Statement on Government artfully framed over 50 years ago. Provide some students with a transformative experience or provide all students with a less than transformative experience. They were not created through a committee or market analysis. 2. 3… B. E. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. The model uses the concepts of the systems approach, combines elements of models in the literature, and shows the relationships and … Yet, most plans are time bound. Now they matter a good deal to the institution. The first model we will highlight is the "Basic" Strategic Planning … Drawing again on the work of a range of strategy thinkers, examples of potentially impactful questions include: In the end, as Martin and his colleagues suggest, strategy is fundamentally about answering two key questions: 1) Where to play and 2) how to succeed. Not only do they educate and train students but they also create new ideas and knowledge for the short-term contemporary issues as well as long-term Basic Strategic Planning Model. Separate products to serve distinct purposes. What is magical about 60 months? This essay is based on a chapter in their new book, Practical Wisdom: Thinking Differently About College and University Governance. He co-directs the Penn Project on University Governance. Section 1 examines best practices in strategic planning for higher education institutions. Be the first to know.Get our free daily newsletter. The report comprises the following two sections: Receive industry-leading insights directly in your inbox. Model and plan for financial KPIs such as net tuition revenues, in-state and out-of-state tuition revenues, and discounts. Share your thoughts », Practical Wisdom: Thinking Differently About College and University Governance, Arizona State University-Downtown Phoenix, Bowling Green State University-Main Campus, Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute, California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona, California State University at Stanislaus, California State University Dominguez Hills, California State University Maritime Academy, California State University-Channel Islands, California State University-San Bernardino, Call to Action: Marketing and Communications in Higher Education, Chabot-Las Positas Community College District, Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Columbia University in the City of New York, Computer Science / Information Technology, CUNY Borough of Manhattan Community College, CUNY Graduate School and University Center, CUNY John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Development / fund raising / alumni affairs, Doane University-Graduate and Professional Studies, East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University-Daytona Beach, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University-Prescott, Facilities / auxiliary services / sustainability, Fairleigh Dickinson University-Metropolitan Campus, Faith Baptist Bible College and Theological Seminary, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Foothill-DeAnza Community College District, Fuller Theological Seminary in California, Gov. Therefore, institutions either: 1) revise their plans and priorities as the world evolves during that five-year window or 2) ignore some (or most) of what is in their plans as they respond to new challenges and pursue emergent opportunities. “Great,” we said, “but better at what? A strategy map is a visual tool designed to clearly communicate a strategic plan and … Who are our key audiences and how are their needs and aspirations changing? A focus on strategy is intended to help institutions experiment and take initiative, to ask questions and create synergies, and to move institutions ahead in often unknown and unknowable environments. Colleges and universities would be better served by focusing on the other half of strategic planning: the strategy, Peter Eckel and Cathy Trower argue. Our newsletters are packed with helpful tips, industry guides, best practices, case studies, and more. (Most do not, but they generate a pretty good laugh. Between the key factors, specialized literature states it as the most important factor in … But other strategy emerges from the work on campuses, particularly among the faculty. Yet unlike operational priorities, strategy is not time bound. Operations address how to do things right, whereas strategy is about the right things to do. Institutions still need plans. Who are our competitors -- both traditional and nontraditional -- and in what ways are they competing differently? They suggested that higher education A Strategic Planning Process Model for Developing Open Educational Resources Shu-Hsiang Chen, Jaitip Nasongkhla, and J. Ana Donaldson. What key objectives will best ensure that we fulfill our mission in the foreseeable future? Certainly, strategic plans are important to academic institutions. A concentration on strategy might help institutions operate more efficiently, make smarter choices among competing priorities and set the course for a sustainable future. Strategic planning in universities is frequently positioned as vital for clarifying future directions, providing a coherent basis for decision-making, establishing priorities, and improving organizational performance. The environment for most universities is volatile and variable, not static and predicable; it is challenge dependent and not time dependent. While important operational priorities are frequently advanced in traditional strategic plans -- such as creating a financially sustainable business model, leveraging technology or growing enrollments -- they are not strategy. A short plan cycle may also mitigate the tendency to front‐load or back‐load goals during the planning process. During a recent workshop on strategy (and not planning), the following exchange occurred between an experienced administrator and one of us. Although there is a general agreement on the conceptual note on the strategic planning process, the differences are conspicuous in its internal process of transformation from strategic formulation to implementation. (For some, the answer is simply five years of reprieve before they have to go through the planning process again.). Better as an institution or better at planning?” Her reply, sheepishly: “Ah, better at planning.”. Too often strategic plans fall short of serving as a guiding light for the future. Yet despite all this investment of time and resources, few strategic plans enjoy strong consensus that they are meaningful and have a real impact on the trajectory of the college or university. Strategy is the purpose for which you will be taking these operational steps. Kaufman’s Strategic Planning Model • systems framework model by Kaufman • model has undergone extensive improvements during the last 2 decades • initially presented in systems analysis of 6 steps • Organization Elements Model (OEM) – systems framework of 4 major clusters of 13 steps & improved into 3 major clusters of 12 steps 34. and how will you succeed? And with each one we get better,” she said. Three Stages of Strategic Planning 3.1. We discuss common pitfalls and guiding principles for gaining buy‐in, implementing the plan, and financial planning. What is magical about 60 months? Articulating the right things to do is difficult work. A strategic plan in the education sector is the physical product of the strategic planning process and embodies the guiding orientations on how to manage an education system within a larger national development perspective, which is evolving by nature and often involves constraints. Once the program in higher education took root, others saw the potential for similarly structured programs in school administration, education entrepreneurship, medical education and for chief learning officers. Operations are the steps to implement strategy and therefore deliver on the mission. Some are triumphs of form (or wordsmithing) over substance. They design and put in place new data systems to track progress and create elaborate metrics and key performance indicators. But plans are not strategies. Please visit our contact page. Strategy is what we say we will do, but it also is about the cumulative effect of what we have done. At Morgan State University, listening sessions, town hall meetings, and a regularly updated website promoted involvement from a wide swath of the campus community. (PDF) Strategic Model and Strategic Planning in Higher Education | Gamze Sart - Academia.edu In the era of the 21st century, the best higher education institutions have more than one role. Involve more people, develop new metrics, hire different consultants, have leaders say earlier in the process that “this plan will not sit on the shelf.” But what if improving planning is the wrong focus? How well do the strategic choices in your institution’s plan pass this opposites test? Strategic planning for higher education: plan for a better tomorrow, today . This article reviews the systems approach to strategic planning as a method to enhance the planning processes. Decide on short-term strategies that will allow you to reach milestones which clearly show progress towards achieving the company vision. The opposite of “provide all students with a transformational learning experience”? As academics, we have been preachers of management theories and concepts but, when it comes to the real world of practicing It includes a brief history of strategic planning, emerging challenges in higher education, basic models and steps of a strategic planning process, adapting strategic planning to unique needs of higher education, and a look into the strategic planning at the California State University system. Strategy, as a concept, sits between mission and operational plans. Most strategic plans tend to adopt an artificial focus of five years (the bold ones aim for 10 years or more). This guide reviews good practice in strategic planning in higher education (HE). We know that it can feel lik… Institutions should recognize that strategy can be created from consistencies and synergies across efforts, and need not always come from a formal strategy-development process. What criteria is used to demarcate what is inside and outside those boundaries. In addition, we profile two successful strategic planning processes, including the timeline, participants, procedures, and lessons learned. And all the while, those who lead the planning process can be heard saying, “This plan will not sit on the shelf (this time).”. Models for successful strategic planning abound and often … In this regard, the conceptual idea of strategic planning plays a key role in the development of the Iraqi educational process, and many researchers have explored it as a critical tool that prepares institutions of higher education to respond to future scenarios and educational needs. English, British – ANZ; English, British – UK; Need to respond to change as it happens? Strategic Planning in Higher Education Abstract Higher education institutions around the world are taking on more responsibility for their own future planning. The higher education landscape continues to experience change. The Synario modeling engine communicates changes to your projected financial statements, including cash flow, as you make them. Request your custom consult below and a member of our team will be in touch. Reacting in a Never-Ending Breaking News Cycle. 2. Colleges and universities invest a tremendous amount of time and effort (holding many meetings with various constituent groups on and off campus to gain input) -- and sometimes also money (for consultants) -- in their strategic plans. Trustees and faculty members wonder what all the fuss was about, why the process was so time-consuming and arduous and why, in the end, the work seems to have had so little real impact. Through synthesized research findings and teaching insights, the authors collaboratively devised a comprehensive communication planning model that is based on a series of strategic questions designed to focus a higher education institution’s communication approaches, and that includes a project-management framework guiding strategy and tactics along a continuum ranging from the most … Thus, we have the title of this essay (which is an intentional overstatement, as we will explain below). Now there’s a way to run your college or university with speed and agility . The result for most institutions is that faculty members, administrators, trustees, alumni and others spend a lot of time and energy developing documents that give incomplete directions. A good strategic plan can improve student outcomes, keep great teachers and enhance the reputation of district leadership. The most popular strategic planning model goes by no particular name, but is frequently used in many large companies, all across the world. Harpswell Foundation students. Planning models in the literature were examined, and a new model specifically oriented to institutions of higher education is presented. By continuing to use this website, you consent to our use of cookies. For intentional strategy formation, involving key stakeholders is important, if not essential. Access the best custom research to help hit your organization’s goals. University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma, University of South Florida-Sarasota-Manatee, University of South Florida-St Petersburg, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Valley/Mission Community College District, West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine, Bruce Springsteen and the Biden-Harris Victory, Teaching Online in the COVID Crisis: What We Have Learned, Responding vs. 8, No. The solution, tried and tried again, on most campuses is to improve planning efforts to create better strategic plans. Photo courtesy of New College of the Humanities/Simon Jones. (Courtesy: University of Akron), University of Cincinnati-Blue Ash College, University of Cincinnati-Clermont College, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado Denver/Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of Maryland University College, University of Massachusetts Medical School, University of North Carolina at Asheville, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, University of North Carolina School of the Arts, University of Pittsburgh-Pittsburgh Campus. Strategic planning in higher education requires both reliable financial projections and a deep understanding of how various projects, initiatives, and scenarios will impact your college or university. “Undergoing a strategic planning process can be a monumental task, especially for higher education institutions that are attempting a more contemporary model for the first time. How might we respond? Why should time matter more than other variables that might define strategy and its direction? 72) facing institutions of higher education, strategic planning is critical. Most strategic plans tend to adopt an artificial focus of five years (the bold ones aim for 10 years or more). To conclude, the title of this essay is a gross overstatement. Therefore, if the opposite of your strategic choices looks stupid, then all competitors are going to have pretty much the same strategy as you, doing you little good. As a result, they need to further strengthen their capacity for strategic performance. How well do higher education strategic plans provide answers to those deceptively simple questions? They need plans to operationalize their strategies. Perform low-impact research. for strategic planning in high er education which is modif ied fro m Jonson’s model Keepin g in mind the differen ce in context between business and governmental higher education organization. Their key points often are expected, and they share much in common with those of similar, but also dissimilar, institutions. Workday Adaptive Planning helps higher education teams accelerate budgeting and expense cycles, align resources against priority programmes and courses, and streamline critical processes like enrollment planning. Those elements answer the college’s “where to play” question. Cathy Trower is president of Trower & Trower Inc. (a governance consulting firm). While there are multiple models of strategic planning, many of which include a periodic review of the resulting goals and objectives, there are few systematic assessments of the impact of the process itself. Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, Missouri University of Science and Technology, North Dakota State University-Main Campus, North Orange County Community College District, Northern Virginia School of Therapeutic Massage, Northern Wyoming Community College District, Ohio State University Agricultural Technical Institute, Oklahoma State University - Center for Health Sciences, Patient simulation at Springfield Technical Community College, Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus, Pennsylvania State University-Penn State Abington, Pennsylvania State University-Penn State Harrisburg, Rancho Santiago Community College District, Saint Francis Medical Center College of Nursing, San Joaquin Delta Community College District, San Jose/Evergreen Community College District, San Mateo County Community College District, source: istock.com/CEFutcher uses: Student, source: iStock.com/FlashSG uses: faculty retirement, source: iStock.com/hocus-focus uses: open education resources, source: iStock.com/marekuliasz uses: ethics, source: iStock.com/monkeybusinessimages uses: adult education, source: istock.com/nigelcarse uses: Finance, source: Lauren Rouppas uses: affordable care act, source: Wikipedia/Janto Dreijer uses: tablet, source: Wikipedia/Ludovic Bertron caption: gay students, source: wikipedia/strngwrldfrwl uses: remedial education, source:iStock.com/AnthiaCumming uses: S.T.E.M. The growth of international activities within higher education institutions takes place in a number of different ways ranging from the ad hoc (reactive) to the strategic (proactive). VISION. If strategy were easy, every organization would have a well-articulated and impactful one. Given the demands on campuses and the complexities that academic leaders face, might institutions be better served by looking at the future through some new lenses rather than reinvesting in yet another round of similar work? The concept of strategic planning has extensively been used to formulate institutional objectives of higher education institutions into time bound deliverables. Rather, they came about because a few savvy faculty members saw the need to offer a doctoral program in a new format in higher education management (the where-to-play decision). Enter your email address below to opt in: Visit one of Hanover’s COVID-19 Resource Centers for clear, actionable information to help you design your response to the pandemic, Copyright © 2020 Hanover Research / All Rights Reserved /. “I’ve been involved in three different strategic planning efforts at my institution. Framing the right questions can help craft strategy, as those questions can energize the collective will and creative good thinking across campus that is needed to address today’s pressing challenges. The discussion has been informed by three areas of concern common to many higher education institutions: the need to manage changing funding models, the need to seek more sustainable support from key constituents, and the need to improve student recruitment and retention. Institutions hold retreats, often over many days, to talk about plan implementation and progress. “Educate students for the global 21st century,” anyone? Plans appear in highly visible places on websites. What are the boundaries of our efforts? This report examines best practices in strategic planning at higher education institutions and profiles the strategic plans and planning processes in place at five specific institutions. This book aims to bridge the gap between preaching and practice in Strategic Planning in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). Strategy exists if some competitors choose different, if not opposite, paths. Roger Martin, former dean of the business school at the University of Toronto, has a wonderful test about plans versus strategy. New Approaches, Different Questions, Novel Outcomes. Institutions would be better served to first start by articulating statements of strategy and then creating operational plans to deliver on those statements (see the University of Vermont’s College of Education and Social Services pathways in its planning document). What might happen if rather than developing and arguing over objectives, goals, timelines and key performance indicators, administrators, faculty members and trustees spent the time framing and asking a limited number of strategy-related questions? University of Queensland student Robert Carrol participates in a surgery rotation at the Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans. And historically in higher education, it has been overlooked in conversations about each. planning process of a typical commercial initiative, the framework of the higher education strategic planning deploys almost similar methodologies in strategic formulation and strategic implementation. SPHE emphasizes key strategies for effective leadership, communication, and assessment throughout the seven planning phases. An institutional mission statement says why a college or university exists; it’s the purpose. Strategy as a field may have a lot to offer colleges and universities. It is not the sole undertaking of faculty members, administrators or the board. That included adopting a system to address problems in education, human development, counseling and social work; focusing on the people, places and history of Vermont (the Vermont Distinction); and prioritizing its impact on a diverse, globalized society. fields, source:iStock.com/clu uses: library digitization, source:iStock.com/CurvaBezier uses:federal funded programs, source:iStock.com/maxuser uses: academy-industry relationships, source:iStock.com/MTMCOINS uses: sergeant, source:iStock.com/SimplyCreativePhotography uses: student finance, source:iStock.com/tillsonburg uses: strikes, source:Wikipedia caption: Notre Dame Quad, source:Wikipedia/Lakshmansrikanth uses: law library, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, South Metropolitan Higher Education Consortium, South Orange County Community College District, Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville, State University of New York at New Paltz, Stella and Charles Guttman Community College, Student Community College of Baltimore County, Students at Community College of Baltimore County, SUNY College of Agriculture and Technology at Cobleskill, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Tressel speaks to students on campus. DeVos speech offers no relief to borrowers, Students at Emory & Henry earn credit for hiking Appalachian Trail, Embedding Certifications Into Bachelor's Degrees, Students seek pass-fail options again for fall in light of COVID-19, Long-term online learning in pandemic may impact students' well-being, Events | The 2020 Election Results: What Higher Ed Can Expect for the Next Four Years | Tuesday, Dec, Analysis: Florida's developmental education reform worked, Live Updates: Latest News on Coronavirus and Higher Education, We are retiring comments and introducing Letters to the Editor. These operational plans can decouple operations from strategy, develop a short-term (12- to 18-month) road map, and ensure greater agility and responsiveness as needs arise and conditions change. Maybe institutions would be better served by focusing on the other half of strategic planning: the strategy. As she realized during this exchange, the real objective shouldn’t be to improve planning, but rather to improve the institution and position it for success in the long run. This approach includes the following steps: 1. Once finished, there is great fanfare and publicity, often around the plan’s creative name and new, bold priorities. These pitfalls can lead to unrealistic timelines and/or a loss of momentum. What do we not do or consider not doing? Many of the institutions consulted said they would welcome some guidance on good practice. It originated in a consultation exercise which we held in 1998 to review our approach to strategic planning. How is the environment evolving and what does that mean for our competitive advantage? So if the results are less than impactful, then why do we invest so much in strategic planning? A caveat: strategy questions, as the right-things-to-do questions, are difficult to frame and to frame well. Peter Eckel serves as senior fellow and director of leadership programs at the Alliance for Higher Education and Democracy in the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Education. A strategy without a plan may simply be a wish.

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