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To help pay some of the costs of the newly expanded empire, the British Parliament decided to levy new taxes on the colonies of British America. But with the Sugar Act of 1764, Parliament sought, for the first time, to tax the colonies for the specific purpose of raising revenue. Dickinson declared that Parliament's attempt to impose duties solely for the purpose of generating income was a direct threat to the well being of all Americans. Earlier British attempts to impose taxes directly on goods (such as sugar and stamps) were met with violent protests. The boycott put tremendous pressure on British manufacturers, who relied on the colonial markets to buy their goods. With the third of the Townshend Acts Parliament established a Board of Customs Commissioners. The Massachusetts letter provoked a response from the new Secretary for American Affairs Wills Hill, Lord Hillsborough, who demanded that Massachusetts Governor Francis Bernard either force the General Court to apologize or dissolve the assembly. The Townshend Acts (/ˈtaʊnzənd/)[1] or Townshend Duties, refers to a series of British acts of Parliament passed during 1767 and 1768 relating to the British colonies in America. This form of revenue generation was Townshend's response to the failure of the Stamp Act of 1765, which had provided the first form of direct taxation placed upon the colonies. Dictionary of American History. 16 Oct. 2020 . Whereas an act of Parliament was made in the fifth year of his present Majesty's reign, entitled, An act to amend and render more effectual, in his Majesty's dominions in America, an act passed in this present session of Parliament, entitled, An act for punishing mutiny and desertion and for the better payment of the army and their quarters; wherein several directions were given, and rules and regulations established and appointed for the supplying his Majesty's troops in the British dominions in America with such necessaries as are in the said act mentioned during the continuance thereof, from the twenty-fourth day of March, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-five, until the twenty-fourth day of March, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-seven; and whereas the House of Representatives of his Majesty's province of New York in America have, in direct disobedience of the authority of the British legislature, refused to make provision for supplying the necessaries and in the manner required by the said act; and an act of assembly hath been passed within the said province for furnishing the barracks in the cities of New York and Albany with firewood and candles, and the other necessaries therein mentioned, for his Majesty's forces inconsistent with the provisions and in opposition to the directions of the said act of Parliament; and whereas by an act made in the last session, entitled, An act to amend and render more effectual, in his Majesty's dominions in America, an act passed in this present session of Parliament entitled, An act for punishing mutiny and desertion, and for the better payment of the army and their quarters, the like directions, rules, and regulations were given and established for supplying with necessaries his Majesty's troops within the said dominions during the continuance of such act, from the twenty-fourth day of March, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-six, until the twenty-fourth day of March, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-eight; which act was, by an act made in this present session of Parliament, entitled, An act for further continuing an act of the last session of Parliament entitled, An act to amend and render more effectual, in his Majesty's dominions in America, an act passed in this present session of Parliament entitled, An act for punishing mutiny and desertion, and for the better payment of the army and their quarters, further continued until the twenty-fourth day of March, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-nine. The Letters Dickinson’s most famous contribution as the “Penman” and for the colonial cause was the publication of a series of letters signed “A FARMER.” Bostonians, already angry because the captain of the Romney had been impressing local sailors, began to riot. The act was particularly resented in New York, where the largest number of reserves were quartered, and outward defiance led directly to the Suspending Act as part of the Townshend Acts of 1767. His views were refuted by a fellow Pennsylvanian, landowner and lawyer John Dickinson in a pamphlet entitled Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania. January 1766 – New York refuses to comply with the August 1766 – Charles Townshend assumed the position of Chancellor of the Exchequer. benoitb—Digital Vision/Getty Images. (October 16, 2020). . The acts were resisted in the Thirteen Colonies.

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